Articles and Books

Articles for Nursing Students and Nurses with Disabilities
  • Arndt, Mary E. MSN, RN (2004). Educating Nursing Students with Disabilities: One Nurse Educator’s Journey from Questions to Clarity. Journal of Nursing Education. 43(5).
  • Alger, J. R. (1997). The educational value of diversity. Academe, 83, 20-23
  • Balandin S, Hemsley B, Sigafoos J, et al: Communicating with nurses: The experiences of ten individuals with acquired severe communication impairment. Brain Impairment 2(2): 109-118, 2001
  • Biley, A. M. (1994). A handicap of negative attitudes and lack of choice: Caring for inpatients with disabilities. The Professional Nurse, 9, 786-788.
  • Christensen, R.M. (1998). Nurse educators’ attitudes toward and decision-making related to applicants with physical disabilities. Journal of Nursing Education, 37(7), 311-314.
  • Chickadonz, G. H., Beach, E. K., & Fox, J. A. (1983). Breaking barriers: Educating a deaf nursing student. Nursing and Health Care, 4, 327-333.
  • Coates, K. J. (2002). Up to the challenge: Nurses with disabilities overcome legal, social and mental hurdles to flourish in their careers.
  • Computer Center for Visually Impaired People, Division of Continuing and Professional Studies Baruch College, City University of New York (2002). A practical guide to accommodating people with visual impairments in the workplace.
  • Davidson, S. (1994). The Americans with Disabilities Act and essential functions in nursing programs. Nurse Educator, 19(2), 31-34.
  • Duston, S. (2001). Definition of disability under the ADA: A practical overview and update. Cornell University.
  • Eliason, M. (1992). Nursing students with learning disabilities: appropriate accommodations. Journal of Nursing Education, 31(8), 375-376.
  • Evans, Bronwynne C. PhD, RN (2004). Application of the Caring Curriculum to Education of Hispanic/Latino and American Indian Nursing Students. Journal of Nursing Education. 43(5).
  • French, S. (1988). Experiences of disabled health and caring professionals. Sociology of Health & Illness, 10 (2), 170-188.
  • Gething, L. (1991). Interaction with Disabled Person scale manual. Sydney, Australia: Community Disability and Aging Program, University of Sidney.
  • Gething, L. LaCour, j., & Wheeler, B. (1994). Attitudes of nursing home administrators and nurses towards people with disabilities. Journal of Rehabilitation, 60 (4), 66-70.
  • Gooden, M. B., Porter, C. P., Gonzalez, R. I., & Mims, B. L. (2001). Issues update: Rethinking the relationship between nursing and diversity. AJN, 101, 63,65.
  • Goodall, C.J. (1992). Preserving dignity for disabled people. Nursing Standard, 7, 25-28.
  • Harkins, D., Kirchner, C., Esposito, R., Chandu, F., & Istanbouli, M. (1991). Report from a study of issues and strategies toward improving employment of blind or visually impaired persons in Illinois. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.
  • Harris, L. (2001). N.O.D./Harris 2000 survey of Americans with disabilities. New York: Harris Interactive.
  • Hartman, D. W., & Hartman, C. W. (1981). Commentary: Disabled students and medical school admissions. Archives of Physical Medical Rehabilitation, 62, 90-91.
  • Helms, L. B., & Weiler, K. (1993). Disability discrimination in nursing education: An evaluation of legislation and litigation. Journal of Professional Nursing, 9(6), 358-366.
  • Hemsley B, Sigafoos J, Balandin S, et al: Nursing the patient with severe communication impairment. J Adv Nur, 35(6): 827-835, 2001
  • Hill, J.L. (1996). Speaking out: Perceptions of students with disabilities regarding adequacy of services and willingness of faculty to make accommodations. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 12 (1), 22-43.
  • Joffee, E. (1999). A practical guide to the ADA and visual impairment. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.
  • Kaye, H. S. (1997). Disability Watch: The Status of People with Disabilities in the United States. Disability Rights Advocates. Volcano, CA: Volcano Press, Inc.
  • Kendrick, D. (2001). Health care professionals who are blind or visually impaired. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.
  • Ketefian, S., & Porter, C. P. (2000). Legal and ethical issues: Diversity in nursing education--Part III. Journal of Professional Nursing, 16, 129.
  • Ketefian, S., & Scisney-Matlock, M. (1999). Legal and ethical issues: Diversity in nursing education--Part I. Journal of Professional Nursing, 15, 263.
  • Kirchner, C., Schmeidler, E., & Todorov, A. (1999). Looking at employment through a lifespan telescope. New York: American Foundation for the Blind.
  • Lee, B. & Duston, S. Update. (2000). Reasonable accommodation under the ADA. Cornell University.
  • Leners, D., Beardslee, N. Q., & Peters, D. (1996). 21st century nursing and implications for nursing school admissions. Nursing Outlook, 44, 137-140.
  • Leyser, Y., Vogel, S., Wyland, S., Brulle, A. (1998). Faculty attitudes and practices regarding students with disabilities: Two decades after implementation of Section 504. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 12 (3), 22, 1-19.
  • Lillesto, B. (1997). Violation in caring for the physically disabled. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 19, 282-96.
  • Lindgren, C.L., & Oermann, M.H. (1993). Effects of an educational intervention on students' attitudes toward the disabled. Journal of Nursing Education, 32, 121-6.
  • Louis Harris & Associates, Inc. (1998). The 1998 N.O.D/Harris Survey of Americans with Disabilities. Conducted for: The National Organization on Disability. (Study No. 828373).
  • Magilvy, J.K., & Mitchell, A.C. (1995). Education of nursing students with special needs. Journal of Nursing Education, 34 (1), 31-36.
  • Maheady. D. C. (2003). For disabled RNs, a cyberspace assist.
  • Maheady, D. C. (1999). Jumping through hoops, walking on egg shells: The experiences of nursing students with disabilities. Journal of Nursing Education, 38(4), 162-170. [see response article by Marks also]
  • Magilvy, J. K., & Mitchell, A. C. (1995). Education of nursing students with special needs. Journal of Nursing Education, 34(1), 31-36.
  • Marks, B. (2007). Cultural Competence Revisited: Nursing Students with DisabilitiesJournal of Nursing Education, 46(2), 70-74. The demographic profile of students in nursing schools is changing in relation to many different cultural backgrounds. Despite the potential for students with disabilities to enrich the nursing profession, nurse educators may be perpetuating historical attitudes, values, and practices that exclude students with disabilities from gaining admission or identifying themselves as people with disabilities. Educators in nursing schools continue to ask whether people with disabilities have a place in the nursing profession, while the more salient question is, “When will people with disabilities have a place in the nursing profession?” More important, as we create environments that welcome students with disabilities into the nursing profession, how does the quality of nursing care improve and become more appropriate for people with different cultural experiences? The purpose of this article is to present the value of recruiting students with disabilities into nursing schools in order to enhance culturally competent nursing care.
  • Marks, B. (2000). Jumping through hoops and walking on eggshells or discrimination, hazing, and abuse of students with disabilities? Journal of Nursing Education, 39(5), 205-210. This response to a previously published article discusses the models of disability and recommends use of the social model.
  • Martini, C. J. M. (1987). Physical disabilities and the study and practice of medicine. JAMA, 257, 2956-2957.
  • Marx, G. S. (1993). The impact of the ADA on colleges of nursing. Dean Notes: Nursing Dean Newsletter, 15 (2), 1-2.
  • Milani, A. A. (1996). Disabled students in higher education. Journal of College and University Law, 22, 989-1043.
  • Moore, Candice A. MSN, RN, HNC (2004). Disability as Difference and the Nursing Profession Journal of Nursing Education. 43(5).
  • Murphy, G. T., & Brennan, M. (1998). Nursing students with disabilities. The Canadian Nurse, 94, 31-34.
  • Northway, R. (2000). Disability, nursing research and the importance of reflexivity. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32, 391-397.
  • Northway, R. (1997). Disability and oppression: Some implications for nurses and nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26, 736-743.
  • Oliver M. (1998). Theories in health care and research: Theories of disability in health practice and research. BMJ, 317, 1446-9.
  • Oermann, M. H. (1995). Personal experience with people who have disabilities: The effects on nursing students' attitudes. Rehabilitation Nursing Research, 4, 28-32.
  • Oermann, M. H., & Lindgren, C. L. (1995). An educational program's effects on students' attitudes toward people with disabilities: A 1-year follow up. Rehabilitation Nursing, 20, 6-10.
  • O’Lynn, Chad Ellis PhD, RN (2004). Gender-Based Barriers for Male Students in Nursing Education Programs: Prevalence and Perceived Importance. Journal of Nursing Education. 43(5).
  • Packer, T. L., Iwasiw, C., Theben, J., Sheveleva, P., & Metrofanova, N. (2000). Attitudes to disability of Russian occupational therapy and nursing students. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 23, 39-47.
  • Pawlowski, S. (2000). Applying to college as a learning disabled student. New York Commission on Quality of Care Newsletter.
  • Persaud, D., & Leedom, C. (2002). The Americans with Disabilities Act: Effect on student’s admission and retention practices in California nursing schools. Journal of Nursing Education, 41(8), 349-352. This study finds that individual attributes rather than the disability itself, and faculty willingness affects students’ abilities to succeed in nursing programs.
  • Radwin, L. (2000). Oncology patients' perceptions of quality nursing care. Research in Nursing & Health, 23, 179-190.
  • Richardson, M. (1997). Addressing barriers: Disabled rights and the implications for nursing of the social construct of disability. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 1269-1275.
  • Rhodes, R., Davis, D., & Odom, B. (1999). Challenges and rewards of educating a profoundly deaf student. Nurse Educator, 24(3), 48-51. This article discusses the adaptation required of faculty and administrators in educating a student with a disability and the development of creating teaching strategies.
  • Roush, S.E. (1986). Health professionals as contributors to attitudes toward persons with disabilities: A special communication. Physical Therapy, 66 (10), 1551-1554.
  • Scullion. P.A. (1999). Conceptualizing disability in nursing: Some evidence from students and their teachers. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 29(3), 648-657. This article details implications for nursing practice and education of viewing disability as deviation.
  • Selekman, J. (2002). Nursing students with learning disabilities. Journal of Nursing Education, 41(8), 334-339. This article discusses the law, teaching and learning issues, and accommodations for students with disabilities.
  • Shellenberger, T. (1993). Helping dylexic nursing students. Nurse Educator, 18 (6), 10-13.
  • Sowers, J. & Smith, M. (2004). Evolution of the Effects of an In-Service Training Program on Nursing Faculty Members’ Perceptions, Knowledge, and Concerns About Students with Disabilities. Journal of Nursing Education. 43(6), 248-252.
  • Sowers, Jo-Ann PhD & Smith, Martha R. MS (2004). Nursing Faculty Members’ Perceptions, Knowledge, and Concerns About Students with Disabilities. Journal of Nursing Education 43(5), 213-218.
  • Sowers, J. & Smith, M. (2003). A Field-Test of the Impact of an In-Service Training Program on Health Sciences Educational Faculty. Journal Postsecondary Education and Disability. 17(1), 33-48.
  • Sowers, J. & Smith, A. (2002). Disability as Diversity. Journal of Nursing Education. 14(8), 331-332.
  • Steckler, S. L. (1999). Nursing case law update: The nurse with severe hearing disability. Journal of Nursing Law, 6, 39-46.
  • Steinberg, A. G., Iezzoni, L. I., Conill, A., & Stineman, M. (2002).
    Reasonable accommodations for medical faculty with disabilities. JAMA, 288(24), 3147-3154.
  • Stone, E., & Priestly, M. (1996). Parasites, pawns and partners: Disability research and the role of non-disabled researchers. British Journal of Sociology, 47, 699-716.
  • Strader, M.K. (1983). Schools of nursing and the handicapped applicant: status of the law. Nursing and Health Care, June, 322-326.
  • Swenson, I., Foster, B. H., & Champagne, M. (1991). Responses of schools of nursing to physically, mentally, and substance-impaired students. Journal of Nursing Education, 30, 320-325.
  • Terhune, Carol JD, MA (2004). From Desegregation to Diversity: How Far Have We Really Come? Journal of Nursing Education. 43(5).
  • Watkins, M.P. (2003). Disabled nursing student overcome challenges.
  • Wainapel, S. F. (1987). Special communications: The physically disabled physician. JAMA, 257, 2935-2938.
  • Weatherby, F., & Moran, M. (1989). Admission criteria for handicapped students. Nursing Outlook, 37 (4), 179-181.
  • Wolffe, K.E. Employment and Accommodations for People with Disabilities in Nursing Professions (PDF Document).
  • Wurst, Nancy Henderson (2005). Able: How One Company’s Disabled Workforce Became the Key to Extraordinary Success. Combined with this tale of personal success is an effective guide useful to business people seeking to emulate a company model that would make any executive proud. Hospitals and schools of nursing can find ideas and inspiration from this company’s disabled workforce. Benbella Books, Dallas, Texas.


Articles for Physicians and Medical Students with Disabilities

  • Aristeiguieta, C.A. (1998). Substance abuse, mental illness, and medical students: the role of the Americans with disabilities act. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(1), 80.
  • Association of Academic Physiatrists. (1993). Recommended guidelines for admission of candidates with disabilities to medical school.
  • Brown, M. (1998). A medical degree and nowhere to go. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(1), 82.
  • Conill, A. (1998). Living with disability: A proposal for medical education. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(1), 83.
  • Corbet, B., & Madorsky, J.G. (1991). Physicians with disabilities. Western Journal of Medicine, 154(5), 514-521.
  • Essex-Sorlie, D. (1994). The Americans with disabilities act: I - History, summary, and key components. Academic Medicine, 69(7), 519-524.
  • Essex-Sorlie, D. (1994). The Americans with disabilities act: II - Implications and suggestions for compliance for medical schools. Academic Medicine, 69(7), 525-535.
  • Haas, R. (1998). Experiences with d/deaf culture. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(1), 82.
  • Hartman, D.W., & Hartman, C.W. (1981). Disabled students and medical school admissions. Archives of Physical Medical Rehabilitation, 62, 90-91.
  • Helms, L.B., & Helms, C.M. (1994). Medical education and disability discrimination: the law and future implications. Academic Medicine, 69(7), 535-543.
  • Martini, C. (1987). Physical disabilities and the study and practice of medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 257(21), 2956-2957.
  • Miles, S.H. (1998). A piece of my mind, a challenge to licensing boards: The stigma of mental illness. Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(10), 865.
  • Moore-West, M., & Heath, D. (1982). The physically handicapped student in medical school: A preliminary study. The Journal of Medical Education, 57, 918-921.
  • Reichgott, M.J. (1998). The disabled student as undifferentiated graduate: A medical school challenge. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(1), 79.
  • Reichgott, M.J. (1996). Without handicap: issues of medical schools and physically disabled students. Academic Medicine, 71(7), 724-729.
  • Takakuwa, K.M. (1998). Coping with a learning disability in medical school. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(1), 81.
  • Verville, R.E. (1990). The Americans with disabilities act: An analysis.
  • Yom, S.S. (1998). Disabilities: looking back and looking ahead. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 279(1), 78.


Books Using a Social Model of Disability

  • Charlton, J. L. (1998). Nothing about us, without us. University of California Press. A social theory book about disability oppression and empowerment set in an international context. Available at Borders and on
  • Davis, L.J. (1997). The Disability Studies Reader. Routledge: New York.
  • Hartman, D., & Asbell, B. (1978). White coat, white cane. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Linton, Simi. (1998). Claiming Disability: Knowledge and Identity. New York: New York University Press.
  • Olkin, R. (1999). What Psychotherapists Should Know about Disability. Guilford Press: Berkeley, CA. This book, based on the social model of disability, provides the information and skills mental health professionals need for effective, informed work with clients with disabilities.
  • Padden, C. & Humphries, T. (1988). Deaf in America; Voices from a Culture. Harvard University Press: Boston. This book discusses how deaf culture works, what it means to its members, how they define themselves within it, and how they interact with the world outside.
  • Pointon, A. & Davies, C. (1998). Framed: Interrogating Disability in the Media. University Press: Indiana.
  • Shapiro, J.P. (1993). No Pity: People with Disabilities Forging a New Civil Rights Movement. Random House, Inc.: New York. Information about the social and political barriers and the disability rights movement.
  • Shakespeare, T. (1998). The Disability Reader: Social Science Perspectives. Cassell: London.
  • Saxton, M. & Howe, F. (1987). With Wings: An Anthology by and about Women with Disabilities. Feminist Press of the City University of New York.
  • Shaw, B. (1994). The Ragged Edge: The Disability Experience from the Pages of the First Fifteen Years of the Disability Rag. The Advocado Press, 1994.


Legal Protections

Newsletter Articles

Online Resources for Nurses
Wingfield, C. (1999). Disabled Nurses forum at

Post-Secondary Education
  • Beirne-Smith, M., & Deck, M.D. (1989). A survey of postsecondary programs for students with learning disabilities. The Journal of Learning Disabilities, 22(7), 456-457.
  • Bursuck, W.D., Rose, E., Cowen, S., & Yahaya, M.A. (1989). Nationwide survey of postsecondary education services for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 56(3), 236-245.
  • Carroll, A., & Johnson Bown, C.E. (1996). Disability support services in higher education: An extension of the rehabilitation process. The Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 27(3), 54-59.
  • Gugerty, J. (1994). Characteristics of services provided by two-year colleges that serve students with learning cognitive disabilities in highly effective ways. Issues in Special Education and Rehabilitation, 9(1), 79-87.
  • Kohler, P.D. Services for students with disabilities in postsecondary education settings: A conceptual framework of program outcomes. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Transition Research Institute.
  • National Center for Education Statistics. (1996). Digest of education statistics 1996 (Publication No. NCES 96-133). Office of Educational Research and Improvement. Snyder, T.D., Project Director.
  • National Center for Education Statistics. (1999). Students with disabilities in postsecondary education: A profile of preparation, participation, and outcomes. (Publication No. NCES 1999-187). Office of Education Research and Improvement. Horn, L., & Berktold, J., MPR Associates, Inc.
  • Nelson, R., & Lignugaris-Kraft, B. (1989). Postsecondary education for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children, 56 (3), 246-265.
  • Pacifici, T., & McKinney, K. (1997). Disability support services for community college students. Los Angeles, CA: Clearinghouse for Community Colleges. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED409972)
  • Scott, S.S. (1997). Accommodating college students with learning disabilities: how much is enough? Innovative Higher Education, 22 (22).



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